The past participle forms of most irregular verbs also begin with ge-. But with many verbs, there is a change in the verb root. The participle form of an irregular verb usually ends in -en.
As you can see, there are few rules for whether and how a root vowel will change. This is why you have to learn the irregular verbs by heart.
Verbs with inseparable prefixes form the past participle without ge-:
There are a few irregular past participles with special characteristics. You will also have to learn these forms by heart.
Here are a few examples:
|Grammatical terms in German: |
regelmäßig: A grammatical form is regular when it follows a fixed pattern that can be applied to other words.
unregelmäßig: Irregular forms need to be memorized, as there is no universal rule for how to make a particular form from the basic form. Irregular forms are those that are different from most and/or have special characteristics that do not follow the rule.