Past participles: regular

With regular verbs, the past participle usually begins with the prefix ge-; then comes the verb root, followed by a -t at the end.

Infinitive Past participle
machen  ge-mach-t
frühstücken  ge-frühstück-t
kochen ge-koch-t



If the verb root ends in -t or -d, an additional e is added. This extra e is also added after a cluster of consonants. Often, you will be able to identify when an e is necessary, as without it, the word would be hard to say.

Infinitive Past participle



öffnen ge-öffn-et


Some verbs make the past participle without ge-:

  • Verbs which end in -ieren
  • Verbs with inseparable prefixes, i.e. be-, ent-, er-, ver-, zer-
Infinitive  Past participle 





besuchen besuch-t


Grammatical terms in German:

das Partizip II: The past participle is formed from a verb and resembles an adjective. It is used in a variety of grammatical structures, for example to form the present perfect tense.